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31 Mar 2019 380 Views Sarah


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Assessment template: Tool for critiquing QUALITATIVE research

Part 1

Question 1: Study Purpose/Question

(a)   Did the study have a clearly stated purpose/research question? Yes / No


(b)   Explain your response below:

The main and clear aim of the study is toexplore the perceptions which the parents hold about how essential the vaccination of their child is. Besides, this study’s main focus lies on how responsibly the parents must act to be able to focus on their child’s health. The fact that vaccination is essential and imperative is something that parents need to understand (Kurup, He, Wang, Wang and Shorey, 2017). This study also focuses on making parents realise the concept of how important it is to make parents realise their social responsibility towards vaccinating their own child. Vaccination, which is a major component of making one’s child lead a healthy life is seen as a vital part of this study where parents are informed about management related to vaccination of children (Silverman, 2016). Also, as of now, health care as well as management of children’s health must be taken care of. This is one of the initial studies here in Singapore; a similar kind of study has never been conducted before (Kurup et al., 2017).

Question 2: Relevance to nursing/midwifery practice

(a)    Explain how this question was relevant to nursing/midwifery practice.

 A lot needs to be done in terms of enhancing the experience of vaccination for parents as far as providing vaccination to their children is concerned. Action needs to be taken by policymakers as well as various healthcare professionals (Kurup et al., 2017). All steps need to be taken in the current time to ensure proper healthcare to the children. All these steps are important as they lead toimprovement of the services being catered. Besides, it also decreases the various impeding factors which provide a better frame of time and data in the longer run.  Better services in terms of making parents communicate better with regard to the kind of provisions they want for their children must also be considered. All these factors state how important this research question thereby is (Lindlof and Taylor, 2017). Nursing practices will also apply to how the research related findings will be helpful in terms of providing apt education to theparents who want to get their children vaccinated (Kurup et al., 2017). This research question, therefore, is quite important in the case of applying all forms of strategies which will be able to act as reminders for getting children vaccinated. The main aim of this research study and even why it ishighly important is also because it not only shortens the waiting timefor parents to treat their children as well as gives them reminders too (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017). This research therefore is efficient also with regard toeducating nurses and instructingthem on how to give education to parents. This particular research question is also efficiently important as it helps with regard to gathering data pertaining to the lack of skills in the healthcare organisations (Kurup et al., 2017). This research question, therefore, will also deal withproblems with respect to lack of communication skills as well as lack of a good relationship development amongst all the parents who are present at the clinical settings. Primarily, this research will also focus on providing support to the nurses to be able to make them more informed (Silverman, 2016). Nurses, therefore, must be bale to treat vaccination as a point which focuses on support the clinical area. Nurses must also be turned efficient with regard to the side effects of any treatment which they provide for- in case they do. This research would thereby, by focusing on all the question and aspects, will also focus on how parents will be able to get rid of their anxieties regarding how their children will be treated. All these implications apply clearly to nations such as Singapore, China as well as Hong Kong wherein vaccinations holds pivotal importance and has also been made mandatory along with having specific coverage rates (Kurup et al., 2017).

Question 3: Ethics

(a)    What were the possible risks of participating in the study?

The main risk within conducting this study is with regard to the ethics of maintaining confidentiality of the participant’s data (Kurup et al., 2017).

(b)   Were these risks clearly identified by the authors?                                                                        Yes / No


(c)    If risks were identified by the authors, how did they propose to minimise risk?

Yes, the risks were identified by the authors and they also were later minimized.This was effectively done by taking verbal as well as alsogiving written informed consent of the participants. This need to be done before recruitments are done.In order to minimize this risk, participants were also told that they can withdraw their name at any time they feel they must (Kurup et al., 2017).

Did the authors state that they had approval from an ethics committee to undertake the study?

Yes / No

(d)   How did the authors obtain informed consent from participants?

The written consent focuses on voluntary participation. This consent must be obtained by maintaining the confidentiality of the data being used. This is mostly done with the help of providing for both verbal as well as written data with regard to the research study (Kurup et al., 2017).


(e)   Did you identify and potential risks associated with the study that were not identified by the authors and if so, what were they?

Authors haven’t been able to identify the legal risks associated with the study. What must also be done then is that a certain legal violation point must be considered wherein there must be punishments in case the confidentiality of the subject is compromised (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017).

Question 4: Study Methodology

(a)   What the chosen methodology for this study?

Descriptive qualitative design has been chosen as a methodology. This has been used through semistructured as well as face-to-face and telephonic interviews (Kurup et al., 2017).

(b)   Was this choice suitable for the given research problem/question?                   Yes / No


(c)    Explain your response to (b):

Yes, aparticular form ofchoice which is suitable for the given research problem is seen as the main goal of the entire qualitative descriptive study design. Summarization with the help of this study is an extremely important step in the terms of noting events which are experienced by a group of people (Lindlof and Taylor, 2017).  This study too focuses on providing the relevant insight which again involves multiple facets of observations involved during the study of child vaccination. This, in fact, has been usable within the perspective of being able to enhance the practice included for the means of improved future services. The main aim of this particular methodological design is to be able to attain information which is rich and also includes a lot of potential form of data (Kurup et al., 2017). When we use semi structure data, it however, is equally essential to be able to extract main views of the participants and keep solutions which are intact as close ended as effectively possible (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017).

Question 5: Data Collection/Rigour

(a)    Describe how the data was collected for this study (interview, observation, etc).

Data collection was a core part of having conducted this research study. For the purpose of conducting this study, data, pilot interview was conducted (Kurup et al., 2017). This interview in facthas to cater to the purpose of testing various interview guides. Initially, an approximate number of 44 parents had been approached. Out of this number, where on one hand, 16 of all of these parents did not seem very willing to involve in participation, 6 parents on the other hand also not even satisfy the inclusion criteria (Kurup et al., 2017). Further, out of other 22 participants involved, the ones with the attained consent, one can however, come to the conclusion that in pilot interview,2 set of parents alsowithdrew from study because of the involvedconstraints in the scheduling. Furthermore, data saturation along with interviews were also conducted (Kurup et al., 2017). At the16th interview which was conducted,data was also found to be saturated to a large extent. Three more participants, thereby, were interviewed for the purpose of confirming that no new data was getting generated. In conclusion,  it can be stated that a total of 19 audio recorded interviews were prepared (Kurup et al., 2017).

Did the researchers provide the participants with the opportunity to check the collected data

or research findings?                                                                                         Yes / No


(b)   Did the researchers continue recruiting people to the study until data saturation was reached?

Yes / No

(c)    Did the study use multiple data collection methods (eg collect data from more than one source)?                                      Yes / No

(d)   Explain how the points in (b), (c) and (d) contribute to the trustworthiness of the overall research findings.

In order to make sure that the participants do not miss out on the collected data, there need to be re-checked assurances. These can be seen as checks which monitor if the participants have missed any important aspect or been dishonest in any sense (Kurup et al., 2017). This study has also used  various strategies for the purpose of promoting rigour which as follows would also lead to contributions related to trustworthiness with regard to the research findings, these include:

§  written reflections and contemplations

§  reviewing of the involved transcripts

§  checking of all the members involved

§  use of distinct words of the participants (Lindlof and Taylor, 2017)

§  triangulation of the investigator

§  keeping an audit trailand track of the field notes, all the conducted interviews and so on.

§  Conducting an analysis of the manner in which coding takes place, themes are formed as well as the manner in which subthemes get derived (Kurup et al., 2017)

§  Besides, it must also entail rich description of the various socio-demographic features

§  Use of verbatim quotes for the purpose of supporting findings must also be enhanced (Silverman, 2016)

Moreover, there also needs to be data saturation whichmust be used been as a prospect. This is important as it is usually used in a form which provides forevidence along with quality with regard to the defined qualitative research. Besides, it is also helpful in terms of assuring credibility as well (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017).

Question 6: Participants

(a)    How many participants were included in the study?

To be precise, a total of approximately 19participants or rather parents were included in this particular researchstudy which has been conducted. All these participants got married at the specifiedage group between 26–47 years (Kurup et al., 2017). 10 participants amongst these were fathers. Their ethnicities were stretched over 11 participants- these included a fewChinese participants, 4 participants were Malay, 4 of them were also Indian, and besides, 1 participant was alsoJewish in the Singapore society. Over 12 participants within this aspect had just one single child (Kurup et al., 2017). Besides, approximately, there are 15 participants which work had some amount of education in terms of having donevaccination somewhere between the span of1 and 18 months before. Besides, there are 4 participants as well who did not have or conduct any form of education. As per participative parents, the parents would feel that their child had been receiving1 to 9 vaccinations since the time ofbirth. The four participants  within this case study were also not able to recall the number (Kurup et al., 2017).

What were the inclusion and exclusion criteria?

Theinclusion criteria are also important and these are as follows:

§  Parents who also had a healthy child within the age of 0–18 months but the undergoing vaccination must also be included.

§  Parents who are the main caregivers of the child were also included.

§  Parent who were also capable enough to read as well as speak in English language were also included (Kurup et al., 2017).

The exclusion criteria is also as follows:

§  Parents who have some kind of hearing as well as visual impairments.

§  Parents who are extremely cognitive along with impairment in any form of degree (Kurup et al., 2017).


(b)   Explain how the participants were recruited.

The participants in this research study were also recruited with the perspective from the vaccinationof Singapore. Within this, the preschool age children will also be able to get their routine vaccination. It is also defined asthe Singaporean society which alsohas a certain form of classification of a designed four representativeraces. These races includeChinese (74.3%), followed by Malaysian race which constitutes as 13.4%, besides, Indian race also consists of 9.1%. Other races also constitute 3.2% towards June 2016 end (Kurup et al., 2017).

(c)    Describe the setting in which the study took place (hospital, community, etc).

The participants in this research study were recruited with the purpose of vaccination. Singapore constitutesof preschool age children as well as this study also concentrates on the regime of routine vaccination. But, however, this study has also been accomplished through the means of conducting the interviews. These interviews took placein a face to face setting. With other parents however, it also takes place on telephone along with participants (Kurup et al., 2017). 

Question 7: Research Findings (outcomes)

(a)   What were the main findings of this study? (provide a dot point summary)

The four main themesakon with other subthemes are also as follows:

§  The main factors which promote vaccination uptake includes

ü  Mandatory nature

ü  Trust imbedded in terms of healthcare

ü  Easy access and accessibility (Kurup et al., 2017)

ü  Protection of child and community

ü  Fearful consequences of not being able to take up vaccination (Kurup et al., 2017)

§  Factors which impede the vaccination compliance

ü  Negative experiences which also includes concerns asd well as risks and side effects

ü  Schedule of constraints

ü  Perceived intensity of low disease severity

ü  Limited access  to the applied optional vaccination (Kurup et al., 2017)

§  Factors which define various supportive roles of including parents prior as well as during and after the vaccination

ü  Ensuring physical readiness towards the purpose of child vaccination

ü  Management of pain along with other negative outcomes

ü  Handling child as well as other observing process (Kurup et al., 2017)<