template: Tool for critiquing QUALITATIVE research
Question 1: Study
the study have a clearly stated purpose/research question? Yes
(b) Explain your response below:
The main and clear aim of the study is toexplore the perceptions
which the parents hold about how essential the vaccination of their child is.
Besides, this study’s main focus lies on how responsibly the parents must act
to be able to focus on their child’s health. The fact that vaccination is essential
and imperative is something that parents need to understand (Kurup, He, Wang,
Wang and Shorey, 2017). This study also focuses on making parents realise the
concept of how important it is to make parents realise their social
responsibility towards vaccinating their own child. Vaccination, which is a
major component of making one’s child lead a healthy life is seen as a vital
part of this study where parents are informed about management related to
vaccination of children (Silverman, 2016). Also, as of now, health care as well
as management of children’s health must be taken care of. This is one of the
initial studies here in Singapore; a similar kind of study has never been
conducted before (Kurup et al., 2017).
Question 2: Relevance to nursing/midwifery
how this question was relevant to nursing/midwifery practice.
A lot needs to be done in
terms of enhancing the experience of vaccination for parents as far as
providing vaccination to their children is concerned. Action needs to be taken
by policymakers as well as various healthcare professionals (Kurup et al.,
2017). All steps need to be taken in the current time to ensure proper
healthcare to the children. All these steps are important as they lead toimprovement
of the services being catered. Besides, it also decreases the various impeding
factors which provide a better frame of time and data in the longer run. Better services in terms of making parents
communicate better with regard to the kind of provisions they want for their children
must also be considered. All these factors state how important this research
question thereby is (Lindlof and Taylor,
2017). Nursing practices will also apply to how the research related
findings will be helpful in terms of providing apt education to theparents who
want to get their children vaccinated (Kurup et al., 2017). This research
question, therefore, is quite important in the case of applying all forms of
strategies which will be able to act as reminders for getting children vaccinated.
The main aim of this research study and even why it ishighly important is also
because it not only shortens the waiting timefor
parents to treat their children as well as gives them reminders too (LoBiondo-Wood
and Haber, 2017). This research
therefore is efficient also with regard toeducating nurses and instructingthem on
how to give education to parents. This
particular research question is also efficiently important as it helps with
regard to gathering data pertaining to the lack of skills in the healthcare organisations
(Kurup et al., 2017). This research
question, therefore, will also deal withproblems with respect to lack of
communication skills as well as lack of a good relationship development amongst
all the parents who are present at the clinical settings. Primarily, this
research will also focus on providing support to the nurses to be able to make
them more informed (Silverman, 2016). Nurses, therefore, must be bale to treat
vaccination as a point which focuses on support the clinical area. Nurses must also be turned efficient with regard to
the side effects of any treatment which they provide for- in case they do. This
research would thereby, by focusing on all the question and aspects, will also
focus on how parents will be able to get rid of their
anxieties regarding how their children will be treated. All these implications
apply clearly to nations such as Singapore, China as well as Hong Kong wherein vaccinations
holds pivotal importance and has also been made mandatory along with having
specific coverage rates (Kurup et al., 2017).
Question 3: Ethics
were the possible risks of participating in the study?
The main risk within conducting this study is with regard to the
ethics of maintaining confidentiality of the participant’s data (Kurup et al.,
(b) Were these risks clearly identified by
Yes / No
(c) If risks were identified by the
authors, how did they propose to minimise risk?
Yes, the risks were identified by the authors and they also were
later minimized.This was effectively done by taking verbal as well as alsogiving
written informed consent of the participants. This need to be done before
recruitments are done.In order to minimize this risk, participants were also
told that they can withdraw their name at any time they feel they must (Kurup
et al., 2017).
authors state that they had approval from an ethics committee to undertake the
Yes / No
did the authors obtain informed consent from participants?
written consent focuses on voluntary participation. This consent must be
obtained by maintaining the confidentiality of the data being used. This is
mostly done with the help of providing for both verbal as well as written data
with regard to the research study (Kurup et al., 2017).
(e) Did you identify and potential risks
associated with the study that were not identified by the authors and if so,
what were they?
Authors haven’t been able to
identify the legal risks associated with the study. What must also be done then
is that a certain legal violation point must be considered wherein there must
be punishments in case the confidentiality of the subject is compromised (LoBiondo-Wood
and Haber, 2017).
Question 4: Study Methodology
the chosen methodology for this study?
Descriptive qualitative design has
been chosen as a methodology. This has been used through semistructured as well
as face-to-face and telephonic interviews (Kurup et al., 2017).
this choice suitable for the given research problem/question? Yes
your response to (b):
Yes, aparticular form ofchoice which is suitable for
the given research problem is seen as the main goal of the entire qualitative
descriptive study design. Summarization with the help of this study is an
extremely important step in the terms of noting events which are experienced by
a group of people (Lindlof and
Taylor, 2017). This study too focuses on providing the relevant
insight which again involves multiple facets of observations involved during
the study of child vaccination. This, in fact, has been usable within the
perspective of being able to enhance the practice included for the means of improved
future services. The main aim of this particular methodological design is to be
able to attain information which is rich and also includes a lot of potential
form of data (Kurup et al., 2017). When we use semi structure data, it however, is equally essential to
be able to extract main views of the participants and keep solutions which are
intact as close ended as effectively possible (LoBiondo-Wood
and Haber, 2017).
Question 5: Data
(a) Describe how the data was collected
for this study (interview, observation, etc).
Data collection was a core part of having conducted this research study.
For the purpose of conducting this study, data, pilot interview was conducted (Kurup
et al., 2017). This interview in
facthas to cater to the purpose of testing various interview guides. Initially,
an approximate number of 44 parents had been approached. Out of this number,
where on one hand, 16 of all of these parents did not seem very willing to
involve in participation, 6 parents on the other hand also not even satisfy the
inclusion criteria (Kurup et al., 2017). Further, out of other 22 participants involved, the ones with the
attained consent, one can however, come to the conclusion that in pilot
interview,2 set of parents alsowithdrew from study because of the involvedconstraints
in the scheduling. Furthermore, data saturation along with interviews were also
conducted (Kurup et al., 2017). At the16th interview which was conducted,data was also found to be
saturated to a large extent. Three more participants, thereby, were interviewed
for the purpose of confirming that no new data was getting generated. In
conclusion, it can be stated that a
total of 19 audio recorded interviews were prepared (Kurup et
Did the researchers provide the
participants with the opportunity to check the collected data
or research findings?
(b) Did the researchers
continue recruiting people to the study until data saturation was reached?
Yes / No
(c) Did the study use multiple data
collection methods (eg collect data from more than one
source)? Yes / No
(d) Explain how the points in
(b), (c) and (d) contribute to the trustworthiness of the overall research
In order to make sure that the participants do not miss out on the
collected data, there need to be re-checked assurances. These can be seen as
checks which monitor if the participants have missed any important aspect or
been dishonest in any sense (Kurup et al., 2017). This study has also used various strategies for the purpose of
promoting rigour which as follows would also lead to contributions related to
trustworthiness with regard to the research findings, these include:
§ written reflections and contemplations
§ reviewing of the involved transcripts
§ checking of all the members involved
§ use of distinct words of the participants (Lindlof and Taylor, 2017)
§ triangulation of the investigator
§ keeping an audit trailand track of the field notes,
all the conducted interviews and so on.
§ Conducting an analysis of the manner in which coding
takes place, themes are formed as well as the manner in which subthemes get
derived (Kurup et al., 2017)
§ Besides, it must also entail rich description of the
various socio-demographic features
§ Use of verbatim quotes for the purpose of supporting findings
must also be enhanced (Silverman, 2016)
also needs to be data saturation whichmust be used been as a prospect. This is
important as it is usually used in a form which provides forevidence along with
quality with regard to the defined qualitative research. Besides, it is also
helpful in terms of assuring credibility as well (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017).
Question 6: Participants
(a) How many participants were included in
precise, a total of approximately 19participants or rather parents were
included in this particular researchstudy which has been conducted. All these participants got married at the specifiedage group
between 26–47 years (Kurup et al., 2017). 10 participants amongst these were fathers. Their ethnicities were
stretched over 11 participants- these included a fewChinese participants, 4
participants were Malay, 4 of them were also Indian, and besides, 1 participant
was alsoJewish in the Singapore society. Over 12 participants within this
aspect had just one single child (Kurup et al., 2017). Besides, approximately, there are 15 participants
which work had some amount of education in terms of having donevaccination somewhere
between the span of1 and 18 months before. Besides, there are 4 participants as
well who did not have or conduct any form of education. As per participative
parents, the parents would feel that their child had been receiving1 to 9
vaccinations since the time ofbirth. The four participants within this case study were also not able to recall
the number (Kurup et al., 2017).
were the inclusion and exclusion criteria?
Theinclusion criteria are also important and these are as follows:
§ Parents who also had a healthy child within the age of
0–18 months but the undergoing vaccination must also be included.
§ Parents who are the main caregivers of the child were
§ Parent who were also capable enough to read as well as
speak in English language were also included (Kurup et
The exclusion criteria is also as follows:
§ Parents who have some kind of hearing as well as visual
§ Parents who are extremely cognitive along with impairment
in any form of degree (Kurup et al., 2017).
(b) Explain how the participants were
The participants in this research study were also recruited with the
perspective from the vaccinationof Singapore. Within this, the preschool age
children will also be able to get their routine vaccination. It is also defined
asthe Singaporean society which alsohas a certain form of classification of a
designed four representativeraces. These races includeChinese (74.3%), followed
by Malaysian race which constitutes as 13.4%, besides, Indian race also
consists of 9.1%. Other races also constitute 3.2% towards June 2016 end (Kurup
et al., 2017).
the setting in which the study took place (hospital, community, etc).
The participants in this research study
were recruited with the purpose of vaccination. Singapore constitutesof preschool
age children as well as this study also concentrates on the regime of routine
vaccination. But, however, this study has also been accomplished through the
means of conducting the interviews. These interviews took placein a face to
face setting. With other parents however, it also takes place on telephone
along with participants (Kurup et al., 2017).
Question 7: Research Findings
were the main findings of this study? (provide
a dot point summary)
The four main themesakon with other
subthemes are also as follows:
§ The main factors which promote vaccination uptake includes
ü Mandatory nature
ü Trust imbedded in terms of healthcare
ü Easy access and accessibility (Kurup et
ü Protection of child and community
ü Fearful consequences of not being able to take up vaccination
(Kurup et al., 2017)
§ Factors which impede the vaccination compliance
ü Negative experiences which also includes concerns asd
well as risks and side effects
ü Schedule of constraints
ü Perceived intensity of low disease severity
ü Limited access
to the applied optional vaccination (Kurup et
§ Factors which define various supportive roles of
including parents prior as well as during and after the vaccination
ü Ensuring physical readiness towards the purpose of
ü Management of pain along with other negative outcomes
ü Handling child as well as other observing process (Kurup
et al., 2017)<