HEALTHY AGEING PLANNING FOR OSTEOARTHRITIS
In the case of the interviewee it has been observed that she has some limitations in walking and with her regular course of deeds. She has also some sort of inability to pursue strength training exercises though she is involved in regular course of some healthy activities. She has also informed that in the last 2 months she has developed some sort of swelling around her knees and she finds it difficult to stand for a prolonged period of time. She too has gone through falls in these past 2 months. All her symptoms that have been noted from the interview is a clear indication that she has developed osteoarthritis, the most common musculoskeletal disorder affecting near about 7% of the world population, an approximation of more than 500 million people across the globe (Minshull and Gleeson, 2017). The recent appointment with her physician has also come out with the same findings.
Regarding the issues reported in the case of the interviewee an intervention planning has been developed which can be of great benefit for the people of such age and suffering from osteoarthritis. Investigating through various cases of arthritis and examining more cases it has been seen that the aged people suffer from such issue as they tend to loose bone density at such age. This makes their knee joints weak as well as weakens the adjoining limbs too (Ryan and Coughlan, 2014). Considering this fact this project has highlighted upon strength training exercises as the key and one of the most effective interventions that can be regarded as of great beneficial for the aged patients. OA Research Society International (OARSI) has recommended such strength training rehabilitation program as the core treatment for arthritis. Strengthening the weakened limbs and joint cartilages will provide the victims potential what they are lacking now (Nguyen et al., 2016).
Osteoarthritis involves some risk factors including age, obesity, trauma and most importantly weakness in the quadriceps (O'Neill, McCabe and McBeth, 2018). It has been seen that to prevent osteoarthritis, strength training exercises that include quadriceps exercises are most beneficial to gain the potential to sit, stand, walk as well as cope with regular course of activities. Isometric and dynamic strength training exercises have also proved to be symptomatic beneficial for the individual suffering from knee osteoarthritis (Bieler et al., 2017).
Intervention schedule & Program:
Weekly programs have to be scheduled for the aged arthritis patients. Easy workout sessions can be scheduled twice a week that can last long enough not more than 2 hours. The patients have to cope with the habit of walking for 15-20 minutes regularly in the morning which will be divided into 2 sets of 10 minute each. It has been seen that patients suffering from osteoarthritis have significantly lose their stamina to walk even 20 feet constantly (Novak, 2015). The regular morning walk will work as a general warm up exercise which will be followed by 10minutes of cooling down interval. As for the ageing issue the person obviously loose the stamina than that of a middle aged person, prolonged period of walking and exercise routine without interruption can cause harm rather than any kind of benefit (O’Neill et al., 2018).
This warm up exercises will be followed by some resistance training sessions. The resistance training sessions will include leg presses with weights that the aged person can bear, leg curls, seated back rows etc (Minshull and Gleeson, 2017). Along with all these some light weight upper body session will also have to be conducted so as to maintain the balance properly. The lower body strength training exercises will include squats and hamstring exercises. This will eventually help to strengthen the quad muscles which are much needed in the cases of osteoarthritis patients (Minshull and Gleeson, 2017).All these exercise sets will be conducted twice a week apart from the warm up running exercises which have to be done on a regular basis. These exercises will be followed by some yoga too to improve mental and in body health which is also much needed along with arthritis therapy sessions (Knapik et al., 2018).
To make the joint cartilages and adjoining muscles flexible adequate oils mixing with ginger paste can also be applied for better and efficient results (Mat et al., 2014).
Risk factors and Benefits associated with intervention:
Some risk factors are obviously associated with all these interventions that have to be applied to the aged osteoarthritis patients. As not only the arthritis but also some other health issues has also been developed in the individuals with their increasing age (Fransen et al., 2015). Some of them suffer from heart disease as well as limitation in breathing too. Besides, due to their age factor sometimes mishap may happen while dealing with resistance training program and those individual can harm themselves while dealing with weights more than sufficient regarding their age (Mat et al., 2014). Prolonged period of running and training seasons can affect their breathing issues. This can also be possible that strength training interventions cause stress on the joints which would eventually result in exacerbating the pain and decreasing function and mobility too. Apart from this the biochemical changes that are likely to appear with osteoarthritis in older people can react differently strength training increasing the risk factors (Knapik et al., 2018).
This is the reason why a thorough medical check-up need to be done before engaging the patients with such exercise sessions to have a detailed list of their limitations and other key issues the individual is facing. Their training program has to be made according to their examination review (Fransen et al., 2015).
Apart from the risk factors, if these exercise interventions are done properly under guidance, these schedules have proven benefits upon aged osteoarthritis patients. Improvement has been seen in their range of motion as well as they have significantly increased their range of walking along with reducing the time to cover near about 20-30 feet distance (Hawker, 2019). Usage of progressive overload has strong evidence of increasing muscle strength even in the oldest old. Such training schedules can also increase mobility and make the individual able to carry on their simple functional tasks. This has been proven from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) (Fransen et al., 2015). Impact of strength training on leg extensor muscle strength in older adults has been proven moderate and the benefits are statistically significant (Hawker, 2019).
· Bieler, T., Siersma, V., Magnusson, S.P., Kjaer, M., Christensen, H.E. and Beyer, N., 2017. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home‐based exercise for improving function. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 27(8), pp.873-886.Latham, N. and Liu, C.J., 2010. Strength training in older adults: the benefits for osteoarthritis. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 26(3), p.445.
· Fransen, M., McConnell, S., Harmer, A.R., Van der Esch, M., Simic, M. and Bennell, K.L., 2015. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: a Cochrane systematic review. British journal of sports medicine, 49(24), pp.1554-1557.
· Hawker, G.A., 2019. Osteoarthritis is a serious disease. ClinExpRheumatol, 37(Suppl 120), pp.3-6.
· Mat, S., Tan, M.P., Kamaruzzaman, S.B. and Ng, C.T., 2014. Physical therapies for improving balance and reducing falls risk in osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review. Age and ageing, 44(1), pp.16-24.
· Knapik, J.J., Pope, R., Orr, R. and Schram, B., 2018. Osteoarthritis: Pathophysiology, Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Exercise for Reducing Pain and Disability. Journal of special operations medicine: a peer reviewed journal for SOF medical professionals, 18(3), pp.94-102.
· Minshull, C. and Gleeson, N., 2017. Considerations of the principles of resistance training in exercise studies for the management of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 98(9), pp.1842-1851.
· Nguyen, C., Lefevre-Colau, M.M., Poiraudeau, S. and Rannou, F., 2016. Rehabilitation (exercise and strength training) and osteoarthritis: A critical narrative review. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine, 59(3), pp.190-195.
· Novak, M., 2015. Issues in aging. Routledge.
· O'Neill, T.W., McCabe, P.S. and McBeth, J., 2018. Update on the epidemiology, risk factors and disease outcomes of osteoarthritis. Best practice & research Clinical rheumatology, 32(2), pp.312-326.
· Ryan, P. and Coughlan, B.J. eds., 2014. Ageing and older adult mental health: Issues and implications for practice. Routledge.